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Medieval Brixton

1062 Reference to Brixges Stane meaning 'at the edge of the stone (OE stan) of Brihtsige'. This referred to a hundred or district of Surrey where the men of the hundred convened.
Main settlement was at Stockwell with small settlements at Brixton Hill and Coldharbour Lane.
1279 Reference to Brixistane


Georgian Brixton

1810 Rush Common enclosed. This was common land stretching from centre of Brixton up to Brixton Hill.
1816 Vauxhall Bridge opened. This led to ribbon development of housing.
Brixton Windmill built in what was a green field site until 1850s.








1820
Brixton Prison opened as Surrey House of Correction.
1826 Trinity Homes almshouses built.
1824 St Matthews Church by Charles Porden built.
1828 Congregational Church, St Matthews Road, built.


Victorian Brixton

1850s Angell Town laid out on east side of Brixton Road.
1853 St John¹s Church by Benjamin Ferrey built.
1859-62 Railway viaducts of London Chatham & Dover built.
1862 Brixton station opened
1870 Ordnance Survey map of Brixton order now
1870s Loughborough Junction developed.
1873 Vincent Van Gogh lived at 87 Hackford Road, Brixton
1874 St John the Divine, Vassall Road, by GE Street.
1877 Bon Marche opened (cloed in 197*)
1880s Trams led to development of Brixton Hill.
1885-8 Electric Avenue built. First to be lit by electricity.
1890 Interior of St John the Divine, Vassall Road, decorated by Bodley.
1892 Sheep grazing at Brixton Oval



1893 Tate Central Library opened.
1894 Ordnance Survey map of Brixton order now
1896 Brixton Theatre, Brixton Oval, opened next to Brixton Library.
1898 Empress Theatre opened on Brighton Terrace

Edwardian Brixton

1900
Lambeth Council established.
1902
Christ Church, Brixton Road opened.
1908 Town Hall, by Warwick & Austen Hall. Max Wall, entertainer, born Brixton Road.
1911 March: Electric Pavilion (Horner & Lewis)) opened on Brixton Oval.
(initials EP can still be seen on the corner of the building).








1913
Palladium Picture Playhouse (by Gilbert Booth), Brixton Hill, opened.








Prewar Brixton

Ordnance Survey map of Brixton

1920’s

192* Morleys opened (472-488 Brixton Road)
c1924 Brixton Market built for street traders with Reliance Arcade, 45 Brixton Road.
1928 Market Row added as second Brixton Market arcade.
1929 Brixton Astoria, by EA Stone, opened. as a cinema on the Stockwell Road.









1937
Third Arcade (Granville(now known as Brixton Village) added to Brixton market.


Brixton in WW2

1940 St John the Divine bombed but restored in 1955-58.
Brixton Theatre bombed. Then demolished.
1941 Aug: Blitz ended
1944
18 June: VI bomb hit Brixton - one of first
28 June: V1 flying bomb killed 25 people in Acre Lane.
21 V1s landed in SW2 in all creating massive damage.


Post war Brixton

194
7 David Bowie born in Stansfield Road.
1948 First West Indian immigrants arrived. Settled in Somerleyton Road,
Akerman Road and around Railton Road.
1954 Brixton Pavilion Cinema, Brixton Oval. renamed Pullman.
1955 Paul Simonon (Clash) born in Brixton.
Mick Jones (Clash) born in Brixton.
1956 Palladium, Brixton Hill, rebuilt as the Regal.
1957 Empress, Brixton Terrace, re-opened as Granada Cinema
1963
Regal, Brixton Hill, became ABC Brixton.
1964 Pullman Cinema, Brixton Oval. became Classic.
1971
Brixton Underground Station opened.
1972 Brixton Astoria closed as a cinema. Became Sundown rock venue.
1973 Sundown closed.
1976 Classic cinema, Brixton Oval. closed,
1977 ABC, Brixton Hill, became Ace
1978 Classic cinema, Brixton Oval. re-opened as Little Bit Ritzy.
1981
April: Brixton Riots
Ace, Brixton Hill, closed.
Brixton Astoria re-opened as The Fair Deal
1983 Brixton Astoria renamed Brixton Academy - became top London music venue.
1985 Sept: Brixton riot. Ace, Brixton Hill, re-opened as the Fridge nightclub.
1992
Old Empress Theatre, Brixton Terrace. demolished,
1994 Little Bit Ritzy, Brixton Oval. refurbished & extended as Ritzy Picturehouse


Book list:
A History of Brixton - Alan Piper (Brixton Society 1996)


Van Gogh 
Dan Leno 
Max Wall
David Bowie
Lost Theatres and Cinemas of Brixton

 
(c) South London Guide 2010